NPI Lookup
NPI Lookup from the NPI Registry — National Provider Identifier Database

NPI Lookup Allopathic & Osteopathic Physicians

A broad category grouping state licensed providers in allopathic or osteopathic medicine whose scope of practice is determined by education.


A

Allergy & Immunology

An allergist-immunologist is trained in evaluation, physical and laboratory diagnosis, and management of disorders involving the immune system. Selected examples of such conditions include asthma, anaphylaxis, rhinitis, eczema, and adverse reactions to drugs, foods, and insect stings as well as immune deficiency diseases (both acquired and congenital), defects in host defense, and problems related to autoimmune disease, organ transplantation, or malignancies of the immune system.

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A

Anesthesiology

An anesthesiologist is trained to provide pain relief and maintenance, or restoration, of a stable condition during and immediately following an operation or an obstetric or diagnostic procedure. The anesthesiologist assesses the risk of the patient undergoing surgery and optimizes the patient's condition prior to, during and after surgery. In addition to these management responsibilities, the anesthesiologist provides medical management and consultation in pain management and critical care medicine. Anesthesiologists diagnose and treat acute, long-standing and cancer pain problems; diagnose and treat patients with critical illnesses or severe injuries; direct resuscitation in the care of patients with cardiac or respiratory emergencies, including the need for artificial ventilation; and supervise post-anesthesia recovery.

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  • Addiction Medicine

    An anesthesiologist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of addictions.

  • Critical Care Medicine

    An anesthesiologist, who specializes in critical care medicine diagnoses, treats and supports patients with multiple organ dysfunction. This specialist may have administrative responsibilities for intensive care units and may also facilitate and coordinate patient care among the primary physician, the critical care staff and other specialists.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    An anesthesiologist with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Pain Medicine

    An anesthesiologist who provides a high level of care, either as a primary physician or consultant, for patients experiencing problems with acute, chronic and/or cancer pain in both hospital and ambulatory settings. Patient care needs are also coordinated with other specialists.

  • Pediatric Anesthesiology

    An anesthesiologist who has had additional skill and experience in and is primarily concerned with the anesthesia, sedation, and pain management needs of infants and children. A pediatric anesthesiologist generally provides services including the evaluation of complex medical problems in infants and children when surgery is necessary, planning and care for children before and after surgery, pain control, anesthesia and sedation for any procedures out of the operating room such as MRI, CT scan, and radiation therapy.

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C

Clinical Pharmacology

Clinical pharmacology encompasses the spectrum of activities related to the discovery, development, regulation, and utilization of safe and effective drugs.

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C

Colon & Rectal Surgery

A colon and rectal surgeon is trained to diagnose and treat various diseases of the intestinal tract, colon, rectum, anal canal and perianal area by medical and surgical means. This specialist also deals with other organs and tissues (such as the liver, urinary and female reproductive system) involved with primary intestinal disease.

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D

Dermatology

A dermatologist is trained to diagnose and treat pediatric and adult patients with benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, external genitalia, hair and nails, as well as a number of sexually transmitted diseases. The dermatologist has had additional training and experience in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancers, melanomas, moles and other tumors of the skin, the management of contact dermatitis and other allergic and nonallergic skin disorders, and in the recognition of the skin manifestations of systemic (including internal malignancy) and infectious diseases. Dermatologists have special training in dermatopathology and in the surgical techniques used in dermatology. They also have expertise in the management of cosmetic disorders of the skin such as hair loss and scars and the skin changes associated with aging.

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  • Clinical & Laboratory Dermatological Immunology

    A dermatologist who utilizes various specialized laboratory procedures to diagnose disorders characterized by defective responses of the body's immune system. Immunodermatologists also may provide consultation in the management of these disorders and administer specialized forms of therapy for these diseases.

  • Dermatopathology

    A dermatopathologist has the expertise to diagnose and monitor diseases of the skin including infectious, immunologic, degenerative and neoplastic diseases. This entails the examination and interpretation of specially prepared tissue sections, cellular scrapings and smears of skin lesions by means of routine and special (electron and fluorescent) microscopes.

  • MOHS-Micrographic Surgery

    The highly-trained surgeons that perform Mohs Micrographic Surgery are specialists both in dermatology and pathology. With their extensive knowledge of the skin and unique pathological skills, they are able to remove only diseased tissue, preserving healthy tissue and minimizing the cosmetic impact of the surgery. Mohs surgeons who belong to the American College of Mohs Surgery (ACMS) have completed a minimum of one year of fellowship training at one of the ACMS-approved training centers in the U.S.

  • Pediatric Dermatology

    A pediatric dermatologist has, through additional special training, developed expertise in the treatment of specific skin disease categories with emphasis on those diseases which predominate in infants, children and adolescents.

  • Procedural Dermatology

    Procedural Dermatology, a subspecialty of Dermatology, encompassing a wide variety of surgical procedures and methods to remove or modify skin tissue for health or cosmetic benefit. These methods include scalpel surgery, laser surgery, chemical surgery, cryosurgery (liquid nitrogen), electrosurgery, aspiration surgery, liposuction, injection of filler substances, and Mohs micrographic controlled surgery (a special technique for the removal of growths, especially skin cancers).

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E

Electrodiagnostic Medicine

Electrodiagnostic medicine is the medical subspecialty that applies neurophysiologic techniques to diagnose, evaluate, and treat patients with impairments of the neurologic, neuromuscular, and/or muscular systems. Qualified physicians are trained in performing electrophysiological testing and interpretation of the test data. They require knowledge in anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, histology, and pathology of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic nerves, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. They must know clinical features and treatment of diseases of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, as well as those of neuromuscular junction and muscle. Physicians also require special knowledge about electric signal processing, including waveform analysis, electronics and instrumentation, stimulation and recording equipment, and statistics.

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E

Emergency Medicine

An emergency physician focuses on the immediate decision making and action necessary to prevent death or any further disability both in the pre-hospital setting by directing emergency medical technicians and in the emergency department. The emergency physician provides immediate recognition, evaluation, care, stabilization and disposition of a generally diversified population of adult and pediatric patients in response to acute illness and injury.

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  • Emergency Medical Services

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    An emergency medicine physician with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Medical Toxicology

    Medical toxicologists are physicians who specialize in the prevention, evaluation, treatment and monitoring of injury and illness from exposures to drugs and chemicals, as well as biological and radiological agents. Medical toxicologists care for people in clinical, academic, governmental and public health settings, and provide poison control center leadership. Important areas of medical toxicology include acute drug poisoning, adverse drug events, drug abuse, addiction and withdrawal, chemicals and hazardous materials, terrorism preparedness, venomous bites and stings and environmental and workplace exposures.

  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    Pediatric Emergency Medicine is a clinical subspecialty that focuses on the care of the acutely ill or injured child in the setting of an emergency department.

  • Sports Medicine

    An emergency physician with special knowledge in sports medicine is responsible for continuous care in the field of sports medicine, not only for the enhancement of health and fitness, but also for the prevention and management of injury and illness. A sports medicine physician has knowledge and experience in the promotion of wellness and the role of exercise in promoting a healthy lifestyle. Knowledge of exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation and epidemiology is essential to the practice of sports medicine.

  • Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine

    A specialist who treats decompression illness and diving accident cases and uses hyperbaric oxygen therapy to treat such conditions as carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, non-healing wounds, tissue damage from radiation and burns, and bone infections. This specialist also serves as a consultant to other physicians in all aspects of hyperbaric chamber operations, and assesses risks and applies appropriate standards to prevent disease and disability in divers and other persons working in altered atmospheric conditions.

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F

Family Medicine

Family Medicine is the medical specialty which is concerned with the total health care of the individual and the family. It is the specialty in breadth which integrates the biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine is not limited by age, sex, organ system, or disease entity. Note: The American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians certification includes extensive use of Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment (OMT), which integrates the biological, clinical, and behavioral sciences. Board certification for Medical Doctors (MDs) is provided by the American Board of Family Medicine. Board certification for Doctors of Osteopathy (DOs) is provided by the American Osteopathic Board of Family Physicians or the American Board of Family Medicine.

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  • Addiction Medicine

  • Adolescent Medicine

    A family medicine physician with multidisciplinary training in the unique physical, psychological and social characteristics of adolescents and their health care problems and needs.

  • Adult Medicine

  • Bariatric Medicine

    Bariatric medicine is the medical treatment of obesity and its associated conditions. Bariatric medicine addresses the obese individual with a comprehensive program of diet, exercise and behavior modification, and when indicated, the prescription of appropriate medications as determined by the Bariatric physician.

  • Family Medicine - Sports Medicine

    A family medicine physician that is trained to be responsible for continuous care in the field of sports medicine, not only for the enhancement of health and fitness, but also for the prevention of injury and illness. A sports medicine physician must have knowledge and experience in the promotion of wellness and the prevention of injury. Knowledge about special areas of medicine such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation, epidemiology, physical evaluation, injuries (treatment and prevention and referral practice) and the role of exercise in promoting a healthy lifestyle are essential to the practice of sports medicine. The sports medicine physician requires special education to provide the knowledge to improve the health care of the individual engaged in physical exercise (sports) whether as an individual or in team participation.

  • Geriatric Medicine

    A family medicine physician with special knowledge of the aging process and special skills in the diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative aspects of illness in the elderly. This specialist cares for geriatric patients in the patient's home, the office, long-term care settings such as nursing homes, and the hospital.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A family medicine physician with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Sleep Medicine

    A Family Medicine Physician who practices Sleep Medicine is certified in the subspecialty of sleep medicine and specializes in the clinical assessment, physiologic testing, diagnosis, management and prevention of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep specialists treat patients of any age and use multidisciplinary approaches. Disorders managed by sleep specialists include, but are not limited to, sleep related breathing disorders, insomnia, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders.

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G

General Practice

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H

Hospitalist

Hospitalists are physicians whose primary professional focus is the general medical care of hospitalized patients. Their activities include patient care, teaching, research, and leadership related to Hospital Medicine. The term 'hospitalist' refers to physicians whose practice emphasizes providing care for hospitalized patients.

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I

Independent Medical Examiner

A special evaluator not involved with the medical care of the individual examinee that impartially evaluates the care being provided by other practitioners to clarify clinical, disability, liability or other case issues.

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I

Internal Medicine

A physician who provides long-term, comprehensive care in the office and the hospital, managing both common and complex illness of adolescents, adults and the elderly. Internists are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, infections and diseases affecting the heart, blood, kidneys, joints and digestive, respiratory and vascular systems. They are also trained in the essentials of primary care internal medicine, which incorporates an understanding of disease prevention, wellness, substance abuse, mental health and effective treatment of common problems of the eyes, ears, skin, nervous system and reproductive organs.

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  • Addiction Medicine

    An internist doctor of osteopathy that specializes in the treatment of addiction disorders. A doctor of osteopathy that is board eligible/certified by the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine can obtain a Certificate of Added Qualifications in the field of Addiction Medicine.

  • Adolescent Medicine

    An internist who specializes in adolescent medicine is a multi-disciplinary healthcare specialist trained in the unique physical, psychological and social characteristics of adolescents, their healthcare problems and needs.

  • Adult Congenital Heart Disease

    A physician who specializes in the care and treatment of adults with congenital heart disease. Adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) physicians are trained to understand the complexities of congenital heart disease, anatomy, physiology, surgical repairs, and long-term complications and use that to manage ACHD with acquired heart disease, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and pulmonary hypertension.

  • Advanced Heart Failure & Transplant Cardiology

    Specialists in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology would participate in the inpatient and outpatient management of patients with advanced heart failure across the spectrum from consideration for high-risk cardiac surgery, cardiac transplantation, or mechanical circulatory support, to pre-and post-operative evaluation and management of patients with cardiac transplants and mechanical support devices, and end-of-life care for patients with end-stage heart failure.

  • Allergy & Immunology

    An internist doctor of osteopathy that specializes in the treatment of allergy and immunologic disorders. A doctor of osteopathy that is board eligible/certified by the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine can obtain a Certificate of Special Qualifications in the field of Allergy & Immunology.

  • Bariatric Medicine

    Bariatric medicine is the medical treatment of obesity and its associated conditions. Bariatric medicine addresses the obese individual with a comprehensive program of diet, exercise and behavior modification, and when indicated, the prescription of appropriate medications as determined by the Bariatric physician.

  • Cardiovascular Disease

    An internist who specializes in diseases of the heart and blood vessels and manages complex cardiac conditions such as heart attacks and life-threatening, abnormal heartbeat rhythms.

  • Clinical & Laboratory Immunology

  • Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology

    A field of special interest within the subspecialty of cardiovascular disease, specialty of Internal Medicine, which involves intricate technical procedures to evaluate heart rhythms and determine appropriate treatment for them.

  • Critical Care Medicine

    An internist who diagnoses, treats and supports patients with multiple organ dysfunction. This specialist may have administrative responsibilities for intensive care units and may also facilitate and coordinate patient care among the primary physician, the critical care staff and other specialists.

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism

    An internist who concentrates on disorders of the internal (endocrine) glands such as the thyroid and adrenal glands. This specialist also deals with disorders such as diabetes, metabolic and nutritional disorders, obesity, pituitary diseases and menstrual and sexual problems.

  • Gastroenterology

    An internist who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive organs including the stomach, bowels, liver and gallbladder. This specialist treats conditions such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer and jaundice and performs complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using endoscopes to visualize internal organs.

  • Geriatric Medicine

    An internist who has special knowledge of the aging process and special skills in the diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive and rehabilitative aspects of illness in the elderly. This specialist cares for geriatric patients in the patient's home, the office, long-term care settings such as nursing homes and the hospital.

  • Hematology

    An internist with additional training who specializes in diseases of the blood, spleen and lymph. This specialist treats conditions such as anemia, clotting disorders, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, leukemia and lymphoma.

  • Hematology & Oncology

    An internist doctor of osteopathy that specializes in the treatment of the combination of hematology and oncology disorders. A doctor of osteopathy that is board eligible/certified by the American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine WAS able to obtain a Certificate of Special Qualifications in the field of Hematology and Oncology. The Certificate is NO longer offered.

  • Hepatology

    The discipline of Hepatology encompasses the structure, function, and diseases of the liver and biliary tract. The American Board of Internal Medicine considers Hepatology part of the subspecialty of gastroenterology. Physicians who identify themselves as Hepatologists usually, but not always, have been trained in gastrointestinal programs.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    An internal medicine physician with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Hypertension Specialist

    A Hypertension Specialist is a physician who concentrates on all aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.

  • Infectious Disease

    An internist who deals with infectious diseases of all types and in all organ systems. Conditions requiring selective use of antibiotics call for this special skill. This physician often diagnoses and treats AIDS patients and patients with fevers which have not been explained. Infectious disease specialists may also have expertise in preventive medicine and travel medicine.

  • Interventional Cardiology

    An area of medicine within the subspecialty of cardiology, which uses specialized imaging and other diagnostic techniques to evaluate blood flow and pressure in the coronary arteries and chambers of the heart and uses technical procedures and medications to treat abnormalities that impair the function of the cardiovascular system.

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • Medical Oncology

    An internist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancer and other benign and malignant tumors. This specialist decides on and administers therapy for these malignancies as well as consults with surgeons and radiotherapists on other treatments for cancer.

  • Nephrology

    An internist who treats disorders of the kidney, high blood pressure, fluid and mineral balance and dialysis of body wastes when the kidneys do not function. This specialist consults with surgeons about kidney transplantation.

  • Pulmonary Disease

    An internist who treats diseases of the lungs and airways. The pulmonologist diagnoses and treats cancer, pneumonia, pleurisy, asthma, occupational and environmental diseases, bronchitis, sleep disorders, emphysema and other complex disorders of the lungs.

  • Rheumatology

    An internist who treats diseases of joints, muscle, bones and tendons. This specialist diagnoses and treats arthritis, back pain, muscle strains, common athletic injuries and "collagen" diseases.

  • Sleep Medicine

    An Internist who practices Sleep Medicine is certified in the subspecialty of sleep medicine and specializes in the clinical assessment, physiologic testing, diagnosis, management and prevention of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep specialists treat patients of any age and use multidisciplinary approaches. Disorders managed by sleep specialists include, but are not limited to, sleep related breathing disorders, insomnia, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders.

  • Sports Medicine

    An internist trained to be responsible for continuous care in the field of sports medicine, not only for the enhancement of health and fitness, but also for the prevention of injury and illness. A sports medicine physician must have knowledge and experience in the promotion of wellness and the prevention of injury. Knowledge about special areas of medicine such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation, epidemiology, physical evaluation, injuries (treatment and prevention and referral practice) and the role of exercise in promoting a healthy lifestyle are essential to the practice of sports medicine. The sports medicine physician requires special education to provide the knowledge to improve the healthcare of the individual.

  • Transplant Hepatology

    An internist with special knowledge and the skill required of a gastroenterologist to care for patients prior to and following hepatic transplantation that spans all phases of liver transplantation. Selection of appropriate recipients requires assessment by a team having experience in evaluating the severity and prognosis of patients with liver disease.

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L

Legal Medicine

Legal Medicine is a special field of medicine that focuses on various aspects of medicine and law. Historically, the practice of legal medicine made contributions to medicine as a scientific instrument to solve criminal perplexities. Since World War II, the domain of legal medicine has broadened to include not only aspects of medical science to solve legal and criminal problems but aspects of law as it applies to medicine. Legal Medicine continues to grow as medicolegal issues like medical malpractice and liability, government regulation of health care, issues of tort reform, and moral and ethical complexities presented by technological advances become increasingly prominent. Many medical schools have implemented courses which supply medicolegal instruction for medical students, and many law schools now offer medicolegal courses. Also, dual degree programs in law and medicine have been created to assist physicians to bridge the gap between medicine and the law.

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M

Medical Genetics

A specialist trained in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for patients with genetically linked diseases. This specialist uses modern cytogenetic, radiologic and biochemical testing to assist in specialized genetic counseling, implement needed therapeutic interventions and provide prevention through prenatal diagnosis. A medical geneticist plans and coordinates large-scale screening programs for inborn errors of metabolism, hemoglobinopathies, chromosome abnormalities and neural tube defects.

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  • Clinical Biochemical Genetics

    A clinical biochemical geneticist demonstrates competence in performing and interpreting biochemical analyses relevant to the diagnosis and management of human genetic diseases and is a consultant regarding laboratory diagnosis of a broad range of inherited disorders.

  • Clinical Cytogenetics

    A clinical cytogeneticist demonstrates competence in providing laboratory diagnostic and clinical interpretive services dealing with cellular components, particularly chromosomes, associated with heredity.

  • Clinical Genetics (M.D.)

    A clinical geneticist demonstrates competence in providing comprehensive diagnostic, management and counseling services for genetic disorders.

  • Clinical Molecular Genetics

    A clinical molecular geneticist demonstrates competence in performing and interpreting molecular analyses relevant to the diagnosis and management of human genetic diseases and is a consultant regarding laboratory diagnosis of a broad range of inherited disorders.

  • Molecular Genetic Pathology

    A board certified subspecialty, the molecular genetic pathologist is expert in the principles, theory and technologies of molecular biology and molecular genetics. This expertise is used to make or confirm diagnoses of Mendelian genetic disorders, of human development, infectious diseases and malignancies and to assess the natural history of those disorders. A molecular genetic pathologist provides information about gene structure, function and alteration, and applies laboratory techniques for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for individuals with related disorders.

  • Ph.D. Medical Genetics

    A medical geneticist works in association with a medical specialist, is affiliated with a clinical genetics program and serves as a consultant to medical and dental specialists.

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N

Neurological Surgery

A neurological surgeon provides the operative and non-operative management (i.e., prevention, diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, critical care, and rehabilitation) of disorders of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their supporting structures and vascular supply; the evaluation and treatment of pathological processes which modify function or activity of the nervous system; and the operative and non-operative management of pain. A neurological surgeon treats patients with disorders of the nervous system; disorders of the brain, meninges, skull, and their blood supply, including the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries; disorders of the pituitary gland; disorders of the spinal cord, meninges, and vertebral column, including those which may require treatment by spinal fusion or instrumentation; and disorders of the cranial and spinal nerves throughout their distribution.

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N

Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine & OMM

The Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine physician directs special attention to the neuromusculoskeletal system and its interaction with other body systems. Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine and Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine encompasses increased knowledge and understanding of osteopathic principles and practice and heightened technical skills of osteopathic manipulative medicine, and integrates each of these into the management of pediatric, adolescent, adult, and geriatric patients.

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N

Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine, Sports Medicine

Sports medicine is a natural outgrowth of osteopathic medicine because of its focus upon the musculoskeletal system, diet, exercise and fitness.

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N

Nuclear Medicine

A nuclear medicine specialist employs the properties of radioactive atoms and molecules in the diagnosis and treatment of disease and in research. Radiation detection and imaging instrument systems are used to detect disease as it changes the function and metabolism of normal cells, tissues and organs. A wide variety of diseases can be found in this way, usually before the structure of the organ involved by the disease can be seen to be abnormal by any other techniques. Early detection of coronary artery disease (including acute heart attack), early cancer detection and evaluation of the effect of tumor treatment, diagnosis of infection and inflammation anywhere in the body and early detection of blood clot in the lungs are all possible with these techniques. Unique forms of radioactive molecules can attack and kill cancer cells (e.g., lymphoma, thyroid cancer) or can relieve the severe pain of cancer that has spread to bone

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O

Obstetrics & Gynecology

An obstetrician/gynecologist possesses special knowledge, skills and professional capability in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and associated disorders. This physician serves as a consultant to other physicians and as a primary physician for women.

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  • Bariatric Medicine

    Bariatric medicine is the medical treatment of obesity and its associated conditions. Bariatric medicine addresses the obese individual with a comprehensive program of diet, exercise and behavior modification, and when indicated, the prescription of appropriate medications as determined by the Bariatric physician.

  • Critical Care Medicine

    An obstetrician/gynecologist, who specializes in critical care medicine diagnoses, treats and supports female patients with multiple organ dysfunction. This specialist may have administrative responsibilities for intensive care units and may also facilitate and coordinate patient care among the primary physician, the critical care staff and other specialists.

  • Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery

    A subspecialist in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery is a physician in Urology or Obstetrics and Gynecology who, by virtue of education and training, is prepared to provide consultation and comprehensive management of women with complex benign pelvic conditions, lower urinary tract disorders, and pelvic floor dysfunction. Comprehensive management includes those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures necessary for the total care of the patient with these conditions and complications resulting from them.

  • Gynecologic Oncology

    An obstetrician/gynecologist who provides consultation and comprehensive management of patients with gynecologic cancer, including those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures necessary for the total care of the patient with gynecologic cancer and resulting complications.

  • Gynecology

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    An obstetrician/gynecologist with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Maternal & Fetal Medicine

    An obstetrician/gynecologist who cares for, or provides consultation on, patients with complications of pregnancy. This specialist has advanced knowledge of the obstetrical, medical and surgical complications of pregnancy and their effect on both the mother and the fetus. The specialist also possesses expertise in the most current diagnostic and treatment modalities used in the care of patients with complicated pregnancies.

  • Obstetrics

    Obstetrics is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of women and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirth and the postnatal period. Midwifery is the non-surgical equivalent. Veterinary obstetrics is the same concept for veterinary medicine.

  • Reproductive Endocrinology

    An obstetrician/gynecologist who is capable of managing complex problems relating to reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

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O

Ophthalmology

An ophthalmologist has the knowledge and professional skills needed to provide comprehensive eye and vision care. Ophthalmologists are medically trained to diagnose, monitor and medically or surgically treat all ocular and visual disorders. This includes problems affecting the eye and its component structures, the eyelids, the orbit and the visual pathways. In so doing, an ophthalmologist prescribes vision services, including glasses and contact lenses.

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  • Cornea and External Diseases Specialist

    An ophthalmologist who specializes in diseases of the cornea, sclera, eyelids, conjunctiva, and anterior segment of the eye.

  • Glaucoma Specialist

    An ophthalmologist who specializes in the treatment of glaucoma and other disorders related to increased intraocular pressure and optic nerve damage. This specialty involves the medical and surgical treatment of these conditions.

  • Neuro-ophthalmology

    A neuro-ophthalmologist is a subspecialist of ophthalmology. This physician evaluates, treats, and studies disorders of the eye, orbit and nervous system having to do with interactions of the visual motor and visual sensory systems with the central nervous system. Neuro-ophthalmologists manage patients with complex and severe neuro-ophthalmological disorders.

  • Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    A physician who specializes in oculofacial plastic and reconstructive surgery. This subspecialty combines orbital and periocular surgery with facial plastic surgery, and includes aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the face, orbit, eyelid, and lacrimal system. Practitioners evaluate, diagnose and treat conditions involving the eyelids, brows, midface, orbits, lacrimal systems and surrounding and supporting structures of the face and neck.

  • Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Specialist

    An ophthalmologist who specializes in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus management. The subspecialty includes the medical and surgical management of eye disorders found in children. Some of the more common disorders include amblyopia, strabismus, refractive error, cataract and glaucoma. These disorders may be related to neurological and endocrinological diseases, trauma, or aging changes in the extraocular muscles requiring medical, optical and surgical management.

  • Retina Specialist

    An ophthalmologist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of vitreoretinal diseases.

  • Uveitis and Ocular Inflammatory Disease

    An ophthalmologist who specializes in the treatment of intraocular inflammation, scleritis, keratitis and infectious disorders affecting the eye and inflammatory disorders of the adnexa and/or orbit.

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O

Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery

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O

Orthopaedic Surgery

An orthopaedic surgeon is trained in the preservation, investigation and restoration of the form and function of the extremities, spine and associated structures by medical, surgical and physical means. An orthopaedic surgeon is involved with the care of patients whose musculoskeletal problems include congenital deformities, trauma, infections, tumors, metabolic disturbances of the musculoskeletal system, deformities, injuries and degenerative diseases of the spine, hands, feet, knee, hip, shoulder and elbow in children and adults. An orthopaedic surgeon is also concerned with primary and secondary muscular problems and the effects of central or peripheral nervous system lesions of the musculoskeletal system.

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  • Adult Reconstructive Orthopaedic Surgery

    Recognized by several state medical boards as a fellowship subspecialty program of orthopaedic surgery, adult reconstructive orthopaedic surgeons deal with reconstructive procedures such as joint arthroplasty (i.e., hip and knee), osteotomy, arthroscopy, soft-tissue reconstruction, and a variety of other adult reconstructive surgical procedures.

  • Foot and Ankle Surgery

    Recognized by several state medical boards as a fellowship subspecialty program of orthopaedic surgery, foot and ankle surgeons deal with adult reconstructive foot and ankle surgery, adult foot and ankle trauma, sports medicine foot and ankle, and children's foot and ankle reconstructive surgery.

  • Hand Surgery

    An orthopaedic surgeon trained in the investigation, preservation and restoration by medical, surgical and rehabilitative means of all structures of the upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.

  • Orthopaedic Surgery of the Spine

    Recognized by several state medical boards as a fellowship subspecialty program of orthopaedic surgery, orthopaedic surgeons of the spine deal with the evaluation and nonoperative and operative treatment of the full spectrum of primary spinal disorders including trauma, degenerative, deformity, tumor, and reconstructive.

  • Orthopaedic Trauma

    Recognized by several state medical boards as a fellowship subspecialty program of orthopaedic surgery, orthopaedic trauma surgeons deal with the evaluation and management of acute orthopaedic injuries, evaluation and treatment of post-traumatic deformities and nonunions, acute and delayed reconstruction of pelvic and acetabular fractures, as well as osteotomy in the adult hip for treatment of hip arthritis.

  • Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

    An orthopedic surgeon who has additional training and experience in diagnosing, treating and managing musculoskeletal problems in infants, children and adolescents. These may include limb and spine deformities (such as club foot, scoliosis); gait abnormalities (limping); bone and joint infections; broken bones.

  • Sports Medicine

    An orthopaedic surgeon trained in sports medicine provides appropriate care for all structures of the musculoskeletal system directly affected by participation in sporting activity. This specialist is proficient in areas including conditioning, training and fitness, athletic performance and the impact of dietary supplements, pharmaceuticals, and nutrition on performance and health, coordination of care within the team setting utilizing other health care professionals, field evaluation and management, soft tissue biomechanics and injury healing and repair. Knowledge and understanding of the principles and techniques of rehabilitation, athletic equipment and orthotic devices enables the specialist to prevent and manage athletic injuries.

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Otolaryngology

An otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeon provides comprehensive medical and surgical care for patients with diseases and disorders that affect the ears, nose, throat, the respiratory and upper alimentary systems and related structures of the head and neck. An otolaryngologist diagnoses and provides medical and/or surgical therapy or prevention of diseases, allergies, neoplasms, deformities, disorders and/or injuries of the ears, nose, sinuses, throat, respiratory and upper alimentary systems, face, jaws and the other head and neck systems. Head and neck oncology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery and the treatment of disorders of hearing and voice are fundamental areas of expertise.

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  • Facial Plastic Surgery

  • Otolaryngic Allergy

  • Otolaryngology/Facial Plastic Surgery

  • Otology & Neurotology

    An otolaryngologist who treats diseases of the ear and temporal bone, including disorders of hearing and balance. The additional training in otology and neurotology emphasizes the study of embryology, anatomy, physiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, pathology, genetics, immunology, microbiology and the etiology of diseases of the ear and temporal bone.

  • Pediatric Otolaryngology

    A pediatric otolaryngologist has special expertise in the management of infants and children with disorders that include congenital and acquired conditions involving the aerodigestive tract, nose and paranasal sinuses, the ear and other areas of the head and neck. The pediatric otolaryngologist has special skills in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of childhood disorders of voice, speech, language and hearing.

  • Plastic Surgery within the Head & Neck

    An otolaryngologist with additional training in plastic and reconstructive procedures within the head, face, neck and associated structures, including cutaneous head and neck oncology and reconstruction, management of maxillofacial trauma, soft tissue repair and neural surgery. The field is diverse and involves a wide age range of patients, from the newborn to the aged. While both cosmetic and reconstructive surgeries are practiced, there are many additional procedures which interface with them.

  • Sleep Medicine

    An Otolaryngologist who practices Sleep Medicine is certified in the subspecialty of sleep medicine and specializes in the clinical assessment, physiologic testing, diagnosis, management and prevention of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep specialists treat patients of any age and use multidisciplinary approaches. Disorders managed by sleep specialists include, but are not limited to, sleep related breathing disorders, insomnia, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders.

  • Interventional Pain Medicine

    Interventional Pain Medicine is the discipline of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of pain and related disorders principally with the application of interventional techniques in managing subacute, chronic, persistent, and intractable pain, independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatment.

  • Pain Medicine

    Pain Medicine is a primary medical specialty based on a distinct body of knowledge and a well-defined scope of clinical practice that is founded on science, research and education. It is concerned with the study of pain, the prevention of pain, and the evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of persons in pain. A comprehensive evaluation incorporates the physical, psychological, cognitive and socio-cultural contributions to pain. The treatment protocol may include pharmacological, invasive, behavioral, cognitive, rehabilitative and complementary strategies provided in a concurrent focused and patient specific manner. The pain medicine physician often serves the patient as a frontline physician regarding their pain, but also may serve as a consultant to other physicians, direct an interdisciplinary/multidisciplinary treatment team, conduct research, or advocate for the patient?s pain care with public and private agencies. The Pain Medicine physician may work in variety of settings including office, clinic, hospital, university, or governmental/public agencies.

  • Anatomic Pathology

    A pathologist deals with the causes and nature of disease and contributes to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biologic, chemical and physical sciences. A pathologist uses information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions for the diagnosis, exclusion and monitoring of disease.

  • Anatomic Pathology & Clinical Pathology

    A pathologist deals with the causes and nature of disease and contributes to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biologic, chemical and physical sciences. A pathologist uses information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions for the diagnosis, exclusion and monitoring of disease.

  • Blood Banking & Transfusion Medicine

    A physician who specializes in blood banking/transfusion medicine is responsible for the maintenance of an adequate blood supply, blood donor and patient-recipient safety and appropriate blood utilization. Pre-transfusion compatibility testing and antibody testing assure that blood transfusions, when indicated, are as safe as possible. This physician directs the preparation and safe use of specially prepared blood components, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma constituents, and marrow or stem cells for transplantation.

  • Chemical Pathology

    A chemical pathologist has expertise in the biochemistry of the human body as it applies to the understanding of the cause and progress of disease. This physician functions as a clinical consultant in the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. Chemical pathology entails the application of biochemical data to the detection, confirmation or monitoring of disease.

  • Clinical Pathology

    A pathologist deals with the causes and nature of disease and contributes to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biologic, chemical and physical sciences. A pathologist uses information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions for the diagnosis, exclusion and monitoring of disease.

  • Clinical Pathology/Laboratory Medicine

    A pathologist deals with the causes and nature of disease and contributes to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment through knowledge gained by the laboratory application of the biologic, chemical and physical sciences. A pathologist uses information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids and secretions for the diagnosis, exclusion and monitoring of disease.

  • Cytopathology

    A cytopathologist is an anatomic pathologist trained in the diagnosis of human disease by means of the study of cells obtained from body secretions and fluids, by scraping, washing, or sponging the surface of a lesion, or by the aspiration of a tumor mass or body organ with a fine needle. A major aspect of a cytopathologist?s practice is the interpretation of Papanicolaou-stained smears of cells from the female reproductive systems, the ?Pap? test. However, the cytopathologist?s expertise is applied to the diagnosis of cells from all systems and areas of the body. He/she is a consultant to all medical specialists.

  • Dermatopathology

    A dermatopathologist is an expert in diagnosing and monitoring diseases of the skin including infectious, immunologic, degenerative, and neoplastic diseases. This entails the examination and interpretation of specially prepared tissue sections, cellular scrapings, and smears of skin lesions by means of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy.

  • Forensic Pathology

    A forensic pathologist is expert in investigating and evaluating cases of sudden, unexpected, suspicious and violent death as well as other specific classes of death defined by law. The forensic pathologist serves the public as coroner or medical examiner, or by performing medicolegal autopsies for such officials.

  • Hematology

    A hematopathologist is expert in diseases that affect blood cells, blood clotting mechanisms, bone marrow and lymph nodes. This physician has the knowledge and technical skills essential for the laboratory diagnosis of anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, bleeding disorders and blood clotting disorders.

  • Immunopathology

  • Medical Microbiology

    A medical microbiologist is expert in the isolation and identification of microbial agents that cause infectious disease. Viruses, bacteria and fungi, as well as parasites, are identified and, where possible, tested for susceptibility to appropriate antimicrobial agents.

  • Molecular Genetic Pathology

    A molecular genetic pathologist is expert in the principles, theory and technologies of molecular biology and molecular genetics. This expertise is used to make or confirm diagnoses of Mendelian genetic disorders, disorders of human development, infectious diseases and malignancies, and to assess the natural history of those disorders. A molecular genetic pathologist provides information about gene structure, function and alteration and applies laboratory techniques for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for individuals with related disorders.

  • Neuropathology

    A neuropathologist is expert in the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system and skeletal muscles and functions as a consultant primarily to neurologists and neurosurgeons. The neuropathologist is knowledgeable in the infirmities of humans as they affect the nervous and neuromuscular systems, be they degenerative, infectious, metabolic, immunologic, neoplastic, vascular or physical in nature.

  • Pathology

    Physicians who practice Clinical Informatics collaborate with other health care and information technology professionals to analyze, design, implement and evaluate information and communication systems that enhance individual and population health outcomes, improve patient care, and strengthen the clinician-patient relationship. Clinical Informaticians use their knowledge of patient care combined with their understanding of informatics concepts, methods, and tools to: assess information and knowledge needs of health care professionals and patients; characterize, evaluate, and refine clinical processes; develop, implement, and refine clinical decision support systems; and lead or participate in the procurement, customization, development, implementation, management, evaluation, and continuous improvement of clinical information systems.

  • Pediatric Pathology

    A pediatric pathologist is expert in the laboratory diagnosis of diseases that occur during fetal growth, infancy and child development. The practice requires a strong foundation in general pathology and substantial understanding of normal growth and development, along with extensive knowledge of pediatric medicine.

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Pediatrics

A pediatrician is concerned with the physical, emotional and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Care encompasses a broad spectrum of health services ranging from preventive healthcare to the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases. A pediatrician deals with biological, social and environmental influences on the developing child, and with the impact of disease and dysfunction on development.

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  • Adolescent Medicine

    A pediatrician who specializes in adolescent medicine is a multi-disciplinary healthcare specialist trained in the unique physical, psychological and social characteristics of adolescents, their healthcare problems and needs.

  • Child Abuse Pediatrics

    A Child Abuse Pediatrician serves as a resource to children, families and communities by accurately diagnosing abuse; consulting with community agencies on child safety; providing expertise in courts of law; treating consequences of abuse and neglect; directing child abuse and neglect prevention programs and participating on multidisciplinary teams investigating; and managing child abuse cases.

  • Clinical & Laboratory Immunology

  • Developmental - Behavioral Pediatrics

    A developmental-behavioral specialist is a pediatrician with special training and experience who aims to foster understanding and promotion of optimal development of children and families through research, education, clinical care and advocacy efforts. This physician assists in the prevention, diagnosis, and management of developmental difficulties and problematic behaviors in children and in the family dysfunctions that compromise children's development.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A pediatrician with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Medical Toxicology

    Medical toxicologists are physicians that specialize in the prevention, evaluation, treatment and monitoring of injury and illness from exposures to drugs and chemicals, as well as biological and radiological agents. Medical toxicologists care for people in clinical, academic, governmental and public health settings, and provide poison control center leadership. Important areas of medical toxicology include acute drug poisoning, adverse drug events, drug abuse, addiction and withdrawal, chemicals and hazardous materials, terrorism preparedness, venomous bites and stings, and environmental and workplace exposures.

  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine

    A pediatrician who is the principal care provider for sick newborn infants. Clinical expertise is used for direct patient care and for consulting with obstetrical colleagues to plan for the care of mothers who have high-risk pregnancies.

  • Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    A pediatrician who treats children having developmental delays or learning disorders including those associated with visual and hearing impairment, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, spina bifida, autism and other chronic neurologic conditions. This specialist provides medical consultation and education and assumes leadership in the interdisciplinary management of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. They may also focus on the early identification and diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disabilities in infants and young children as well as on changes that occur as the child with developmental disabilities grows.

  • Obesity Medicine

    A physician who specializes in the treatment of obesity demonstrates competency in and a thorough understanding of the treatment of obesity and the genetic, biologic, environmental, social, and behavioral factors that contribute to obesity. The obesity medicine physician employs therapeutic interventions including diet, physical activity, behavioral change, and pharmacotherapy. The obesity medicine physician utilizes a comprehensive approach, and may include additional resources such as dietitians, exercise physiologists, mental health professionals and bariatric surgeons as indicated to achieve optimal results. Additionally, the obesity medicine physician maintains competency in providing pre- peri- and post-surgical care of bariatric surgery patients, promotes the prevention of obesity, and advocates for those who suffer from obesity.

  • Pediatric Allergy/Immunology

  • Pediatric Cardiology

    A pediatric cardiologist provides comprehensive care to patients with cardiovascular problems. This specialist is skilled in selecting, performing and evaluating the structural and functional assessment of the heart and blood vessels, and the clinical evaluation of cardiovascular disease.

  • Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

    A pediatrician expert in advanced life support for children from the term or near-term neonate to the adolescent. This competence extends to the critical care management of life-threatening organ system failure from any cause in both medical and surgical patients and to the support of vital physiological functions. This specialist may have administrative responsibilities for intensive care units and also facilitates patient care among other specialists.

  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine

    A pediatrician who has special qualifications to manage emergencies in infants and children.

  • Pediatric Endocrinology

    A pediatrician who provides expert care to infants, children and adolescents who have diseases that result from an abnormality in the endocrine glands (glands which secrete hormones). These diseases include diabetes mellitus, growth failure, unusual size for age, early or late pubertal development, birth defects, the genital region and disorders of the thyroid, the adrenal and pituitary glands.

  • Pediatric Gastroenterology

    A pediatrician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive systems of infants, children and adolescents. This specialist treats conditions such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer and jaundice and performs complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using lighted scopes to see internal organs.

  • Pediatric Hematology-Oncology

    A pediatrician trained in the combination of pediatrics, hematology and oncology to recognize and manage pediatric blood disorders and cancerous diseases.

  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases

    A pediatrician trained to care for children in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. This specialist can apply specific knowledge to affect a better outcome for pediatric infections with complicated courses, underlying diseases that predispose to unusual or severe infections, unclear diagnoses, uncommon diseases and complex or investigational treatments.

  • Pediatric Nephrology

    A pediatrician who deals with the normal and abnormal development and maturation of the kidney and urinary tract, the mechanisms by which the kidney can be damaged, the evaluation and treatment of renal diseases, fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, hypertension and renal replacement therapy.

  • Pediatric Pulmonology

    A pediatrician dedicated to the prevention and treatment of all respiratory diseases affecting infants, children and young adults. This specialist is knowledgeable about the growth and development of the lung, assessment of respiratory function in infants and children, and experienced in a variety of invasive and noninvasive diagnostic techniques.

  • Pediatric Rheumatology

    A pediatrician who treats diseases of joints, muscle, bones and tendons. A pediatric rheumatologist diagnoses and treats arthritis, back pain, muscle strains, common athletic injuries and "collagen" diseases.

  • Pediatric Transplant Hepatology

    A pediatrician with expertise in transplant hepatology encompasses the special knowledge and skill required of pediatric gastroenterologists to care for patients prior to and following hepatic transplantation; it spans all phases of liver transplantation.

  • Sleep Medicine

    A Pediatrician who practices Sleep Medicine is certified in the subspecialty of sleep medicine and specializes in the clinical assessment, physiologic testing, diagnosis, management and prevention of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep specialists treat patients of any age and use multidisciplinary approaches. Disorders managed by sleep specialists include, but are not limited to, sleep related breathing disorders, insomnia, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders.

  • Sports Medicine

    A pediatrician who is responsible for continuous care in the field of sports medicine, not only for the enhancement of health and fitness, but also for the prevention of injury and illness. A sports medicine physician must have knowledge and experience in the promotion of wellness and the prevention of injury. Knowledge about special areas of medicine such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation, epidemiology, physical evaluation, injuries (treatment and prevention and referral practice) and the role of exercise in promoting a healthy lifestyle are essential to the practice of sports medicine. The sports medicine physician requires special education to provide the knowledge to improve the healthcare of the individual engaged in physical exercise (sports) whether as an individual or in team participation.

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Phlebology

Phlebology is the medical discipline that involves the diagnosis and treatment of venous disorders, including spider veins, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency, venous leg ulcers, congenital venous abnormalities, venous thromboembolism and other disorders of venous origin. A phlebologist has attained a minimum of 50 hours of CME units in phlebology-related courses, and is knowledgeable of and trained in a variety of diagnostic techniques including physical examination, venous imaging techniques such as duplex ultrasound, CT and MR, plethysmographic techniques and laboratory evaluation related to venous thromboembolism. The phlebologist is also trained in a variety of therapeutic interventions, which may include compression, sclerotherapy, cutaneous vascular laser, endovenous thermoablation procedures (laser and radiofrequency) endovenous chemical ablation, surgical procedures (e.g., ambulatory phlebectomy, venous ligation), vasoactive medications and the management of venous thromboembolism.

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Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation

Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also referred to as rehabilitation medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with diagnosing, evaluating, and treating patients with physical disabilities. These disabilities may arise from conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system such as neck and back pain, sports injuries, or other painful conditions affecting the limbs, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Alternatively, the disabilities may result from neurological trauma or disease such as spinal cord injury, head injury or stroke. A physician certified in physical medicine and rehabilitation is often called a physiatrist. The primary goal of the physiatrist is to achieve maximal restoration of physical, psychological, social and vocational function through comprehensive rehabilitation. Pain management is often an important part of the role of the physiatrist. For diagnosis and evaluation, a physiatrist may include the techniques of electromyography to supplement the standard history, physical, x-ray and laboratory examinations. The physiatrist has expertise in the appropriate use of therapeutic exercise, prosthetics (artificial limbs), orthotics and mechanical and electrical devices.

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  • Brain Injury Medicine

    A Brain Injury Medicine physician specializes in disorders of brain function due to injury and disease. These disorders encompass a range of medical, physical, neurologic, cognitive, sensory, and behavioral disorders that result in psychosocial, educational, and vocational consequences.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A physical medicine and rehabilitation physician with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Neuromuscular Medicine

    A physician who specializes in neuromuscular medicine possesses specialized knowledge in the science, clinical evaluation and management of these disorders. This encompasses the knowledge of the pathology, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders at a level that is significantly beyond the training and knowledge expected of a general neurologist, child neurologist or physiatrist.

  • Pain Medicine

    A physician who provides a high level of care, either as a primary physician or consultant, for patients experiencing problems with acute, chronic or cancer pain in both hospital and ambulatory settings. Patient care needs may also be coordinated with other specialists.

  • Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine

    A physiatrist who utilizes an interdisciplinary approach and addresses the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of congenital and childhood-onset physical impairments including related or secondary medical, physical, functional, psychosocial and vocational limitations or conditions, with an understanding of the life course of disability. This physician is trained in the identification of functional capabilities and selection of the best of rehabilitation intervention strategies, with an understanding of the continuum of care.

  • Spinal Cord Injury Medicine

    A physician who addresses the prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of traumatic spinal cord injury and non-traumatic etiologies of spinal cord dysfunction by working in an interdisciplinary manner. Care is provided to patients of all ages on a lifelong basis and covers related medical, physical, psychological and vocational disabilities and complications.

  • Sports Medicine

    A physician who specializes in Sports Medicine is responsible for continuous care related to the enhancement of health and fitness as well as the prevention of injury and illness. The specialist possesses knowledge and experience in the promotion of wellness and the prevention of injury from many areas of medicine such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, nutrition, psychology, physical rehabilitation, epidemiology, physical evaluation and injuries. It is the goal of a Sports Medicine specialist to improve the healthcare of the individual engaged in physical exercise.

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Plastic Surgery

A plastic surgeon deals with the repair, reconstruction or replacement of physical defects of form or function involving the skin, musculoskeletal system, craniomaxillofacial structures, hand, extremities, breast and trunk and external genitalia or cosmetic enhancement of these areas of the body. Cosmetic surgery is an essential component of plastic surgery. The plastic surgeon uses cosmetic surgical principles to both improve overall appearance and to optimize the outcome of reconstructive procedures. The surgeon uses aesthetic surgical principles not only to improve undesirable qualities of normal structures but in all reconstructive procedures as well.

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  • Plastic Surgery Within the Head and Neck

    A plastic surgeon with additional training in plastic and reconstructive procedures within the head, face, neck and associated structures, including cutaneous head and neck oncology and reconstruction, management of maxillofacial trauma, soft tissue repair and neural surgery. The field is diverse and involves a wide age range of patients, from the newborn to the aged. While both cosmetic and reconstructive surgery is practiced, there are many additional procedures which interface with them.

  • Surgery of the Hand

    A plastic surgeon with additional training in the investigation, preservation, and restoration by medical, surgical and rehabilitative means of all structures of the upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.

  • Addiction Medicine

    A physician engaged in the subspecialty practice of Addiction Medicine who specializes in the prevention, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of persons with the disease of addiction.

  • Aerospace Medicine

    Aerospace medicine focuses on the clinical care, research, and operational support of the health, safety, and performance of crewmembers and passengers of air and space vehicles, together with the support personnel who assist operation of such vehicles. This population often works and lives in remote, isolated, extreme, or enclosed environments under conditions of physical and psychological stress. Practitioners strive for an optimal human-machine match in occupational settings rich with environmental hazards and engineering countermeasures.

  • Medical Toxicology

    Medical toxicologists are physicians who specialize in the prevention, evaluation, treatment and monitoring of injury and illness from exposures to drugs and chemicals, as well as biological and radiological agents. Medical toxicologists care for people in clinical, academic, governmental and public health settings, and provide poison control center leadership. Important areas of medical toxicology include acute drug poisoning, adverse drug events, drug abuse, addiction and withdrawal, chemicals and hazardous materials, terrorism preparedness, venomous bites and stings, and environmental and workplace exposures.

  • Obesity Medicine

    A physician who specializes in the treatment of obesity demonstrates competency in and a thorough understanding of the treatment of obesity and the genetic, biologic, environmental, social, and behavioral factors that contribute to obesity. The obesity medicine physician employs therapeutic interventions including diet, physical activity, behavioral change, and pharmacotherapy. The obesity medicine physician utilizes a comprehensive approach, and may include additional resources such as dietitians, exercise physiologists, mental health professionals and bariatric surgeons as indicated to achieve optimal results. Additionally, the obesity medicine physician maintains competency in providing pre- peri- and post-surgical care of bariatric surgery patients, promotes the prevention of obesity, and advocates for those who suffer from obesity.

  • Occupational Medicine

    Occupational medicine focuses on the health of workers, including the ability to perform work; the physical, chemical, biological, and social environments of the workplace; and the health outcomes of environmental exposures. Practitioners in this field address the promotion of health in the work place, and the prevention and management of occupational and environmental injury, illness, and disability.

  • Preventive Medicine

    Physicians who practice Clinical Informatics collaborate with other health care and information technology professionals to analyze, design, implement and evaluate information and communication systems that enhance individual and population health outcomes, improve patient care, and strengthen the clinician-patient relationship. Clinical Informaticians use their knowledge of patient care combined with their understanding of informatics concepts, methods, and tools to: assess information and knowledge needs of health care professionals and patients; characterize, evaluate, and refine clinical processes; develop, implement, and refine clinical decision support systems; and lead or participate in the procurement, customization, development, implementation, management, evaluation, and continuous improvement of clinical information systems.

  • Preventive Medicine/Occupational-Environmental Medicine

  • Public Health & General Preventive Medicine

    Public health and general preventive medicine focuses on promoting health, preventing disease, and managing the health of communities and defined populations. These practitioners combine population-based public health skills with knowledge of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention-oriented clinical practice in a wide variety of settings.

  • Sports Medicine

  • Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine

    A specialist who treats decompression illness and diving accident cases and uses hyperbaric oxygen therapy to treat such conditions as carbon monoxide poisoning, gas gangrene, non-healing wounds, tissue damage from radiation and burns and bone infections. This specialist also serves as consultant to other physicians in all aspects of hyperbaric chamber operations and assesses risks and applies appropriate standards to prevent disease and disability in divers and other persons working in altered atmospheric conditions.

  • Addiction Medicine

    A doctor of osteopathy board eligible/certified in the field of Psychiatry by the American Osteopathic Board of Neurology and Psychiatry is able to obtain a Certificate of Added Qualifications in the field of Addiction Medicine

  • Addiction Psychiatry

    Addiction Psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry that focuses on evaluation and treatment of individuals with alcohol, drug, or other substance-related disorders, and of individuals with dual diagnosis of substance-related and other psychiatric disorders.

  • Bariatric Medicine

    Bariatric medicine is the medical treatment of obesity and its associated conditions. Bariatric medicine addresses the obese individual with a comprehensive program of diet, exercise and behavior modification, and when indicated, the prescription of appropriate medications as determined by the Bariatric physician.

  • Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry

    Behavioral Neurology & Neuropsychiatry is a medical subspecialty involving the diagnosis and treatment of neurologically based behavioral issues.

  • Brain Injury Medicine

    A Brain Injury Medicine physician specializes in disorders of brain function due to injury and disease. These disorders encompass a range of medical, physical, neurologic, cognitive, sensory, and behavioral disorders that result in psychosocial, educational, and vocational consequences.

  • Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

    Child & Adolescent Psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry with additional skills and training in the diagnosis and treatment of developmental, behavioral, emotional, and mental disorders of childhood and adolescence.

  • Clinical Neurophysiology

    Clinical Neurophysiology is a subspecialty with psychiatric or neurologic expertise in the diagnosis and management of central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system disorders using combined clinical evaluation and electrophysiologic testing such as electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and nerve conduction studies (NCS).

  • Diagnostic Neuroimaging

    A licensed physician, who has completed a residency program in Neurology, and who has additional training, experience, and competence in the standards of performance and interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI / MRA) of the head, spine, and peripheral nerves, and Computed Tomography (CT) of the head and spine. Physicians are trained in the administration of contrast media and the recognition and treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Neuroimaging training encompasses thorough knowledge of clinical neurology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, and dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Physicians possess special expertise in the technical aspects and clinical applications of each of the modalities and techniques of neuroimaging.

  • Forensic Psychiatry

    Forensic Psychiatry is a subspecialty with psychiatric focus on interrelationships with civil, criminal and administrative law, evaluation and specialized treatment of individuals involved with the legal system, incarcerated in jails, prisons, and forensic psychiatry hospitals.

  • Geriatric Psychiatry

    Geriatric Psychiatry is a subspecialty with psychiatric expertise in prevention, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders in the elderly, and improvement of psychiatric care for healthy and ill elderly patients.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A psychiatrist or neurologist with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Neurocritical Care

    The medical subspecialty of Neurocritical Care is devoted to the comprehensive, multisystem care of the critically-ill neurological patient. Like other intensivists, the neurointensivist generally assumes the primary role for coordinating the care of his or her patients in the ICU, both the neurological and medical management of the patient. They may also provide consultative services for these patients as requested within the health system.

  • Neurodevelopmental Disabilities

    A pediatrician or neurologist who specializes in the diagnosis and management of chronic conditions that affect the developing and mature nervous system such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation and chronic behavioral syndromes, or neurologic conditions.

  • Neurology

    A Neurologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases or impaired function of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles, autonomic nervous system, and blood vessels that relate to these structures.

  • Neurology with Special Qualifications in Child Neurology

    A Child Neurologist specializes in neurology with special skills in diagnosis and treatment of neurologic disorders of the neonatal period, infancy, early childhood, and adolescence.

  • Neuromuscular Medicine

    A neurologist or child neurologist who specializes in the diagnosis and management of disorders of nerve, muscle or neuromuscular junction, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, peripheral neuropathies (e.g., diabetic and immune mediated neuropathies), various muscular dystrophies, congenital and acquired myopathies, inflammatory myopathies (e.g., polymyositis, inclusion body myositis) and neuromuscular transmission disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome).

  • Pain Medicine

    A neurologist, child neurologists or psychiatrist who provides a high level of care, either as a primary physician or consultant, for patients experiencing problems with acute, chronic or cancer pain in both hospital and ambulatory settings. Patient care needs may also be coordinated with other specialists.

  • Psychiatry

    A Psychiatrist specializes in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders, emotional disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, sexual and gender identity disorders and adjustment disorders. Biologic, psychological, and social components of illnesses are explored and understood in treatment of the whole person. Tools used may include diagnostic laboratory tests, prescribed medications, evaluation and treatment of psychological and interpersonal problems with individuals and families, and intervention for coping with stress, crises, and other problems.

  • Psychosomatic Medicine

    Psychosomatic Medicine is subspecialty in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders and symptoms in complex medically ill patients. This subspecialty includes treatment of patients with acute or chronic medical, neurological, obstetrical or surgical illness in which psychiatric illness is affecting their medical care and/or quality of life such as HIV infection, organ transplantation, heart disease, renal failure, cancer, stroke, traumatic brain injury, high-risk pregnancy and COPD, among others. Patients also may be those who have a psychiatric disorder that is the direct consequence of a primary medical condition, or a somatoform disorder or psychological factors affecting a general medical condition. Psychiatrists specializing in Psychosomatic Medicine provide consultation-liaison services in general medical hospitals, attend on medical psychiatry inpatient units, and provide collaborative care in primary care and other outpatient settings.

  • Sleep Medicine

    A Psychiatrist or Neurologist who practices Sleep Medicine is certified in the subspecialty of sleep medicine and specializes in the clinical assessment, physiologic testing, diagnosis, management and prevention of sleep and circadian rhythm disorders. Sleep specialists treat patients of any age and use multidisciplinary approaches. Disorders managed by sleep specialists include, but are not limited to, sleep related breathing disorders, insomnia, hypersomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, parasomnias and sleep related movement disorders.

  • Sports Medicine

  • Vascular Neurology

    Vascular Neurology is a subspecialty in the evaluation, prevention, treatment and recovery from vascular diseases of the nervous system. This subspecialty includes the diagnosis and treatment of vascular events of arterial or venous origin from a large number of causes that affect the brain or spinal cord such as ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, spinal cord ischemia and spinal cord hemorrhage.

  • Body Imaging

    A Radiology doctor of Osteopathy that specializes in Body Imaging.

  • Diagnostic Neuroimaging

    A licensed physician, who has completed a residency program in Neurology, and who has additional training, experience, and competence in the standards of performance and interpretation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI / MRA) of the head, spine, and peripheral nerves, and Computed Tomography (CT) of the head and spine. Physicians are trained in the administration of contrast media and the recognition and treatment of adverse reactions to contrast media. Neuroimaging training encompasses thorough knowledge of clinical neurology, neurophysiology, neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, and dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Physicians possess special expertise in the technical aspects and clinical applications of each of the modalities and techniques of neuroimaging.

  • Diagnostic Radiology

    A radiologist who utilizes x-ray, radionuclides, ultrasound and electromagnetic radiation to diagnose and treat disease.

  • Diagnostic Ultrasound

    A Radiology doctor of Osteopathy that specializes in Diagnostic Ultrasound.

  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A radiologist with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Neuroradiology

    A radiologist who diagnoses and treats diseases utilizing imaging procedures as they relate to the brain, spine and spinal cord, head, neck and organs of special sense in adults and children.

  • Nuclear Radiology

    A radiologist who is involved in the analysis and imaging of radionuclides and radiolabeled substances in vitro and in vivo for diagnosis and the administration of radionuclides and radiolabeled substances for the treatment of disease.

  • Pediatric Radiology

    A radiologist who is proficient in all forms of diagnostic imaging as it pertains to the treatment of diseases in the newborn, infant, child and adolescent. This specialist has knowledge of both imaging and interventional procedures related to the care and management of diseases of children. A pediatric radiologist must be highly knowledgeable of all organ systems as they relate to growth and development, congenital malformations, diseases peculiar to infants and children and diseases that begin in childhood but cause substantial residual impairment in adulthood.

  • Radiation Oncology

    A radiologist who deals with the therapeutic applications of radiant energy and its modifiers and the study and management of disease, especially malignant tumors.

  • Radiological Physics

    A radiological physicist deals with the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of roentgen rays, gamma rays from sealed sources, ultrasonic radiation and radio-frequency radiation, as well as the equipment associated with their production and use, including radiation safety.

  • Therapeutic Radiology

  • Vascular & Interventional Radiology

    A radiologist who diagnoses and treats diseases by various radiologic imaging modalities. These include fluoroscopy, digital radiography, computed tomography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

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Surgery

A general surgeon has expertise related to the diagnosis - preoperative, operative and postoperative management - and management of complications of surgical conditions in the following areas: alimentary tract; abdomen; breast, skin and soft tissue; endocrine system; head and neck surgery; pediatric surgery; surgical critical care; surgical oncology; trauma and burns; and vascular surgery. General surgeons increasingly provide care through the use of minimally invasive and endoscopic techniques. Many general surgeons also possess expertise in transplantation surgery, plastic surgery and cardiothoracic surgery.

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  • Hospice and Palliative Medicine

    A surgeon with special knowledge and skills to prevent and relieve the suffering experienced by patients with life-limiting illnesses. This specialist works with an interdisciplinary hospice or palliative care team to maximize quality of life while addressing physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs of both patient and family throughout the course of the disease, through the dying process, and beyond for the family. This specialist has expertise in the assessment of patients with advanced disease; the relief of distressing symptoms; the coordination of interdisciplinary patient and family-centered care in diverse venues; the use of specialized care systems including hospice; the management of the imminently dying patient; and legal and ethical decision making in end-of-life care.

  • Pediatric Surgery

    A surgeon with expertise in the management of surgical conditions in premature and newborn infants, children and adolescents.

  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

  • Surgery of the Hand

    A surgeon with expertise in the investigation, preservation and restoration by medical, surgical and rehabilitative means, of all structures of the upper extremity directly affecting the form and function of the hand and wrist.

  • Surgical Critical Care

    A surgeon with expertise in the management of the critically ill and postoperative patient, particularly the trauma victim, who specializes in critical care medicine diagnoses, treats and supports patients with multiple organ dysfunction. This specialist may have administrative responsibilities for intensive care units and may also facilitate and coordinate patient care among the primary physician, the critical care staff and other specialists.

  • Surgical Oncology

    A surgical oncologist is a well-qualified surgeon who has obtained additional training and experience in the multidisciplinary approach to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of cancer patients, and devotes a major portion of his or her professional practice to these activities and cancer research.

  • Trauma Surgery

    Trauma surgery is a recognized subspecialty of general surgery. Trauma surgeons are physicians who have completed a five-year general surgery residency and usually continue with a one to two year fellowship in trauma and/or surgical critical care, typically leading to additional board certification in surgical critical care. There is no trauma surgery board certification at this point. To obtain board certification in surgical critical care, a fellowship in surgical critical care or anesthesiology critical care must be completed during or after general surgery residency.

  • Vascular Surgery

    A surgeon with expertise in the management of surgical disorders of the blood vessels, excluding the intracranial vessels or the heart.

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Thoracic Surgery (Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery)

A thoracic surgeon provides the operative, perioperative and critical care of patients with pathologic conditions within the chest. Included is the surgical care of coronary artery disease, cancers of the lung, esophagus and chest wall, abnormalities of the trachea, abnormalities of the great vessels and heart valves, congenital anomalies, tumors of the mediastinum and diseases of the diaphragm. The management of the airway and injuries of the chest is within the scope of the specialty.

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Transplant Surgery

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Urology

A urologist manages benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the genitourinary system and the adrenal gland. This specialist has comprehensive knowledge of and skills in endoscopic, percutaneous and open surgery of congenital and acquired conditions of the urinary and reproductive systems and their contiguous structures.

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  • Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery

    A subspecialist in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery is a physician in Urology or Obstetrics and Gynecology who, by virtue of education and training, is prepared to provide consultation and comprehensive management of women with complex benign pelvic conditions, lower urinary tract disorders, and pelvic floor dysfunction. Comprehensive management includes those diagnostic and therapeutic procedures necessary for the total care of the patient with these conditions and complications resulting from them.

  • Pediatric Urology

    Surgeons who can diagnose, treat, and manage children?s urinary and genital problems. A pediatric urologist devotes a minimum of 50% of his or her practice to the urologic problems of infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatric urologists generally provide the following services: the evaluation and management of voiding disorders; vesicoureteral reflux, and urinary tract infections that require surgery; surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, and bladder) including genital abnormalities, hypospadias, and intersex conditions; surgery for groin conditions in childhood and adolescence (undescended testes, hydrocele/hernia, varicocele).

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